Hindi to English conversion of some terms in Acharya Goenka’s Dhamma Discourses

Here is a great website which acts as a Hindi-English dictionary. Extremely cool software permits you to write the hindi word in English to show the Hindi word in Hindi. Brilliant. Great job guys


1. Bahulikaran: Multiplication. Goenkaji uses this term in context of multiplication of misery, of sankharas, of habit patterns.

2. paarayan:

3. vivaran: description, exposition, delineation. Used in context of the way the Buddha delineates, describes the practice leading to the end of suffering

4. alamban: support, anchor. Used in context of observing external objects such as  colors (visualization), smells, tastes, images (idols etc), sounds (mantras) to support or anchors the mind as the basis of concentration. This is in contrast with using internal objects such as breath, sensations, thoughts to support and anchor the mind and form the basis of concentration (samadhi)

5. paraspar: mutual. Used in context of the mutual interaction between the mind and the body or mutual interaction between various sub atomic particles referred to as parmanus.

6. sparsh: contact, intersection: Used In context of the contact of the senses with the sense objects.

7. vishay: objects. used in context of various sense objects such as nose-sense object (smell) and so on

8. yukti-sangath: Legitimate, in companionship with the rational: Used in context with describing some interpretations of the Buddhas teachings as not being rational or legitimate.

9. Adhyatm: as per colloquial hindi, this has several meanings none of which is the classical meaning of the old days.  One colloquial meaning is self study of any subject (maths, physics, politics etc). Another colloquial meaning is the study of the scripture. As per classical Sanskrit  (Goenkaji’s style), it simply means study of the Self (by whatever means, meditation, cogitation, contemplation, reasoning, observation etc). As a note, to an ancient Indian, study of the self really means self study of the self. Nobody else can study the self for you. You will have to do it yourself. And the study is necessarily through experience. An ancient Indian would sneer at the suggestion that one can study (learn about) anything without actually experiencing it step by step. Without experience all that is left is hearsay, rumor and belief.

10. Bahirmukhi: outward directed, extroverted

11. Atma mukhi: inner directed, introverted.

12. samuday(a): in colloquial hindi, this means a community or a society. In classical Sanksrit, this means integrity, continuity (or the lack thereof). Goenakji uses this in context of knowing the continuity/integrity (or the lack thereof) of bodily sensations and mental states. In Indian mythology, the task of Samudaya belonged to Lord Vishnu, the preserver. The task of Lord Brahma was utpaad (or generation) and that of Lord Shiva was Vyay (or dissolution). The Lord Buddha wanted us to be aware of the instability of Body and mind and to do this, the meditator must know generation, preservation and dissolution with Anicca (change/transience/impermanence) being the only constant in the three seemingly different phenomena

13. Vedana: The colloquial Hindi meaning is a negative emotion such as sadness, melancholy, grief, etc. The Classical Sanskrit meaning of the term is Bodily sensation and all mental phenomena (reaction, cognition, intention) connected to that bodily sensation. In fact the component of a Bodily sensation include all the 5 aggregates of Cognition, volition, reaction, sensation and form.

14: Upadaan, aasakti: attachment. Another example illustrating the changing nature of the spoken word in India. The current colloquial meaning of upadaan is gratuity or tip. I am happy to announce that the word aasakti means the same thing in colloquial Hindi as it did in classical Sanskrit.

15. Anyatha/athva: otherwise, or

16. sarvatr: Everywhere, every part, from all sides

17. smrti: Same as the pali sati. Memory, awareness, concentration. Not used in colloquial hindi anymore.

18. samyukt: unite, complete. Used in context of knowledge being complete or of unifying knowledge i.e. samyukt gyaan

19. mulyaankan: evaluation (of worth/quality), judgement. Used in context of not judging a situation/sensation as good or bad.

20. pratikriya: react(ion), used in context of not reacting to bodily sensation.

21. vyaakhya: interpretation, illustration

22. Sikudan: shrinkage, contraction.

23. Pasaarna: opposite of sikudan. To stretch out, expand

24. laghu shanka and dirgha shanka: Seems like this pertains to the toilet. Not sure. laghu is small and dirgh is long and big. Shanka is doubt. But it cannot possibly mean big and small doubt in context of the discourse.

25. chigalna: something to  do with eating, probably chewing

26. Nigalna: to swallow

27. Thos ( ठोस) : Solid, firm, good, hard. Used in context of having a firm experience of the truth

28. Samikaran: Equalization.

29. Abhipray: purport, destination, meaning. Used in the context for what the Buddha meant (Bhagwan ka abhipray) when he said, “loka”. To the Buddha loka is not brahma loka or kama loka etc. To him loka is this body of three and a half lengths.

30. aropan: attribution.  Uski manyata (philosophy) ka aropan na kar le meaning, do not attribute it (the experience) to any philosophy.

31. Sakshatkar: This means interview in colloquial hindi, but it means experience or attainment in classical. Nirvaan ka sakshaatkar

32. Punj: aggregate, agglomerate, group, bunch, constellation. Saara shareer ka punj meaning the entire aggragate of the body

33. Aari: Saw: Used in context of Anapana being analogous to cutting wood with a saw.


About masculineffort

A Man should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a ship, design a building, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, seduce a woman, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.
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